Mineral inclusions in the late bronze age metal objects оf Southern Transurals
M.N. Ankushev, I.A. Blinov, I.P. Alaeva,
N.B. Vinogradov, F.N. Petrov, P.S. Ankusheva
The paper is devoted to the determination of copper raw material types based on the analysis of mineral inclusions and the composition of metal objects from the Late Bronze Age settlements of the Southern Transurals (XIX–XIII centuries BC). The composition of alloys, inclusions of sulfdes, oxides and metals of objects was established by scanning electron microscopy. The composition of objects is dominated by copper and tin bronze, with a subordinate role of arsenic bronze. The presence of chalcocite and bornite inclusions in most objects indicates the use of rich ores from secondary sulfde enrichment zone. In comparison with analogs, the low total amount of sulfdes in the Southern Transuralian metal objects may indicate the use of mixed oxide and sulfde concentrates. The high Se and Te concentrations of sulfdes are indicative of using of ores of volcanic-hosted massive sulfde or skarn deposits.
Keywords: metal objects, copper, bronze, sulfdes, Late Bronze Age, Southern Transurals.
Received 19.11.2021, accepted 13.12.2021
MINERALOGY 4 2021